ProvayBlue (methylene blue) injection - Mechanism of Action Methemoglobinemia is characterized by the blood's reduced ability to carry oxygen because of reduced levels of normal hemoglobin. Therefore, this condition presents as excessive replacement of hemoglobin with methemoglobin which leads to functional anemia and tissue hypoxia In Methemoglobinemia: Methylene Blue acts by reacting within RBC to form leukomethylene blue, which is a reducing agent of oxidized hemoglobin converting the ferric ion (fe+++) back to its oxygen-carrying ferrous state(fe++) . The first is a direct oxidation of hemoglobin to methemoglobin by methylene blue; the second is a reduction of methemoglobin to hemoglobin which requires the reduced for Mechanism of Action. Methylene blue, in low concentrations, hastens the conversion of methemoglobin to hemoglobin; has opposite effect at high concentrations by converting ferrous ion of reduced hemoglobin to ferric ion to form methemoglobin; in cyanide toxicity, it combines with cyanide to form cyanmethemoglobin preventing the interference of cyanide with the cytochrome syste
Onset of Action for METHYLENE BLUE Reduction of methaemoglobin: 30-60 min (IV) Duration of Action for METHYLENE BLUE N/A Half Life of METHYLENE BLUE N/A Side Effects of METHYLENE BLUE 1.Imparts a blue colour to saliva,Urine, Faeces and Skin 2.Nausea 3.Vomiting 4.Abdominal and chest pain 5.Headache 6.Dizziness 7.Mental confusio Methylene blue, also known as methylthioninium chloride, is a salt used as a medication and dye. As a medication, it is mainly used to treat methemoglobinemia. Specifically, it is used to treat methemoglobin levels that are greater than 30% or in which there are symptoms despite oxygen therapy. It has previously been used for cyanide poisoning and urinary tract infections, but this use is no. Methylene blue which is a very old and a very safe allopathic medicine which is used in cases where oxygen saturation(SP02) of the body is decreasing like Ca.. Methylene Blue is an antioxidant. MB has a unique mechanism of action that is fundamentally different from traditional antioxidants. During cellular respiration, the first free radical formed inside a cell is superoxide (O2). Methylene Blue binds to superoxide and reduces it to water
THE MECHANISM OF THE ANTIDOTAL ACTION OF METHYLENE BLUE IN CYANIDE POISONING. By William Bean Wendel. See all Hide authors and affiliations. Science 26 Oct 1934: Vol. 80, Issue 2078, pp. 381-382 THE MECHANISM OF THE ANTIDOTAL ACTION OF METHYLENE BLUE IN CYANIDE POISONING. By William Bean Wendel. Science 26 Oct 1934: 381-382 . Share This. Mechanism of action. Isosulfan Blue is injected into the periphery of the tumor site, it localizes to the lymphatic system and aids in the surgical identification of tumor sentinel nodes which stain blue. Isosulfan blue may decrease the excretion rate of Methylene blue which could result in a higher serum level The prophylactic administration of methylene blue is equally effective via another principal mechanism, namely oxidation of the excessive quantity of NADH formed during ifosfamide metabolism. The inhibition by methylene blue of multiple amine oxidase activities also prevents formation of the neurotoxic chloroacetaldehyde from ifosfamide-derived chloroethyl amine Methylene blue, when added to aortic rings incubated with 3H-(−)-noradrenaline, interfered with the neuronal uptake of this amine and enhanced the outflow of 3H. In conclusion, methylene blue and haemoglobin enhanced noradrenaline-induced contraction by an endothelium-dependent mechanism when applied via the intima The suspected mechanism of action of methylene blue is inhibition of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase, which ultimately prevents the smooth muscle dilation that accompanies anaphylaxis
Browse latest articles and news on methylene blue mechanism of action. We collect a broad range of methylene blue mechanism of action information on echemi.com Methylene Blue Inhibits the SARS-CoV-2 Spike-ACE2 Protein-Protein Interaction-a Mechanism that can Contribute to its Antiviral Activity Against COVID-19 Methylene Blue Inhibits the SARS-CoV-2 Spike-ACE2 Protein-Protein Interaction-a Mechanism that can Contribute to its Antiviral Activity Against COVID-1 In cancer chemotherapy with ifosfamide the occurrence of a drug-related encephalopathy represents a severe adverse-effect of unknown origin. We found that the underlying mechanism resides in the mitochondrial toxicity of ifosfamide metabolites. The electron accepting drug methylene blue can substitute for the demonstrated flavoprotein deficiency and its administration leads to resolution of.
Methylene blue accomplishes this by supporting the electron transport chain, while near-infrared light does it by directly energizing cytochrome oxidase via photon absorption (Figure 1). Still, their primary cellular mechanism of action is the same: enhancement of mitochondrial respiration. Second, both interventions share high bioavailability Methylene blue dye can be a useful aid in endodontic surgery. The differential staining of methylene blue outlines roots, delineates root dentin from bone, demarks isthmuses betwen two canals in a single root, and outlines cysts for enucleation. La tintura azul de metileno puede ser una ayuda effcaz en cirugía endodóntica
MECHANISM OFACTION METHYLENE BLUE IN TREATMENT OF MET- HEMOGLOBINEMIA To the Editor:\p=m-\In a recent editorial on Methemoglobinemia in Infants (The Journal 141:534 [Oct. 22] 1949) you state, Why methylene blue should be effective in the treatment of methemoglobinemia has not been explained.. . The admin-istration of a methemoglobin-forming agent to patients suffering from methemoglobinemia. THE MECHANISM OF METHYLENE BLUE ACTION ON BLOOD. By Matilda Moldenhauer Brooks. Science 06 Jul 1934 : 15-16
(1998). Mechanism of Methylene Blue Action and Interference in the Heparin Assay. Spectroscopy Letters: Vol. 31, No. 5, pp. 913-924 The mechanism involved in the action of eosin-methylene blue agar (EMB) in differentiating Escherichia coli from Enterobacter aerogenes was investigated using prototrophic strains of these organisms and a Lac − auxotroph, E. coli X-961 Methylene blue represents a non-adrenergic vasopressor with only limited effectiveness in patients with refractory distributive shock. Its mechanism of action is based on the inhibition of the.
Neuroprotective actions of methylene blue and its derivatives. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e48279. PubMed. Yamashita M, Nonaka T, Arai T, Kametani F, Buchman VL, Ninkina N, Bachurin SO, Akiyama H, Goedert M, Hasegawa M. Methylene blue and dimebon inhibit aggregation of TDP-43 in cellular models. FEBS Lett. 2009 Jul 21;583(14):2419-24. PubMed Such high doses of methylene blue can cause serotonin syndrome, though, as methylene blue is a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidase. And methylene blue is contraindicated in G6PD deficient patients as it can cause severe hemolysis. However, the problem is getting the 40,000 lux of light into the bloodstream Abstract. Candida albicans is known to cause infections ranging from superficial and systemic in immunocompromised person. In this study, we explored that the antifungal action of Methylene blue (MB) is mediated through mitochondrial dysfunction and disruption of redox and membrane homeostasis against C. albicans.We demonstrated that MB displayed its antifungal potential against C. albicans. Hydrofera Blue balances the art of wound care from clinic to cost while providing a natural negative pressure mechanism to the wound bed. Hydrofera Blue's potent mechanism of action is powerful and effective; a proprietary capillary- wicking action pulls debris and exudate from the wound bed without the need for gravity or negative pressure advanced healing modalities Methylene blue has multiple indications for use, but recently it has been shown to be useful in treating refractory hypotension. Anaphylaxis results in wide - The proposed mechanism of action is prevention of smooth muscle vasodilation due to blockade of nitric oxidesynthase.2-3,10 Nitricoxide,alsoknownasendothe
Chapter 205. Methylene Blue. Pharmacology. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that increases the conversion of methemoglobin to hemoglobin. Methylene blue is reduced via methemoglobin reductase and nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to leukomethylene blue, which in turn reduces methemoglobin Mechanism of Action. Hyosciamine sulfate is a parasympatholytic that relaxes smooth muscles, which, in turn, produces an antispasmodic effect; it is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is rapidly distributed throughout body tissues; most is excreted in the urine within 12 hours, 13-50% being unchanged; undergoes hepatic metabolism; protein binding is moderat Such substances as i.e. hydroxychloroquine and others, are already under investigation and in widespread off label use. For many reasons Methylene blue (MB), the oldest synthetic substance in medicine (1876 synthesized by BASF) is such a promising candidate for an active treatment against SARS-CoV-2 infected people and for COVID-19 patients
Methylene blue is a redox indicator, that lose its color under the absence of oxygen and is thought to be reduced. The depletion of oxygen in the milk is due to the production of reducing substances in the milk due to the enhanced rate of bacterial metabolism. The dye reduction time refers to the microbial load in the milk and the total. Methylene blue, when added to aortic rings incubated with 3 H-(−)-noradrenaline, interfered with the neuronal uptake of this amine and enhanced the outflow of 3 H. In conclusion, methylene blue and haemoglobin enhanced noradrenaline-induced contraction by an endothelium-dependent mechanism when applied via the intima The mechanism of action of methylene blue makes it the ideal drug that directly counteracts the effects that CCB medications have on smooth muscle. We present a case benzothiazepine type CCB overdose which leads to admission to the ICU for the management of severe distributive shock. Conventional treatment The actual mechanism of the differentiation of lactose-fermenting and non-lactose-fermenting organisms on eosin-methylene-blue medium is not reported in the literature. The present study is an attempt to elucidate this problem
PDF | The kinetic regularities of the initial stage of chemical oxidative polymerization of methylene blue under the action of ammonium peroxodisulfate... | Find, read and cite all the research. Mechanism of Action of Eosin-Methylene Blue Agar in the Differentiation of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. Mechanism of the Selective Action of EosinMethylene-Blue Agar on the Enteric Group. Leave a Comment Cancel Reply. Comment. Name (required) Email (will not be published) (required 3. Physicochemical Properties and Mechanisms of Actions. Methylene blue (tetramethylthionine chloride, C 16 H 18 ClN 3 S) is a heterocyclic aromatic dye, a member of thiazine dyes. It occurs as odorless dark blue crystals and is soluble in water and chloroform but only sparingly so in alcohol
Mechanism of Methylene Blue Action and Interference in the Heparin Assay Liu, Qian; Jiao, Qingcai; Abstract. Publication: Spectroscopy Letters. Pub Date: July 1998 DOI: 10.1080/00387019808003271 Bibcode: 1998SpecL..31..913L full text sources. Publisher |. Abstract. Exposure to toxic levels of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) produces an acute cardiac depression that can be rapidly fatal. We sought to characterize the time course of the cardiac effects produced by the toxicity of H 2 S in sheep, a human sized mammal, and to describe the in vivo and in vitro antidotal properties of methylene blue (MB), which has shown efficacy in sulfide intoxicated rats
Methylene Blue (MB), following its introduction to biology in the 19th century by Ehrlich, has found uses in various areas of medicine and biology. At present, MB is the first line of treatment in methemoglobinemias, is used frequently in the treatment of ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy, and is routinely employed as a diagnostic tool in. adshelp[at]cfa.harvard.edu The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX16AC86 lamotrigine.24 Based on the current knowledge of the mechanism of action of lamotrigine, its combination with methylene blue might be especially effective by reducing glutamatergic effect. This may be mediated by an inhibitory action at multiple steps of the signalling cascade: first, by inhibiting glutamate release and, 5
Methylene Blue. Methylene blue has many uses - in vivo it is indicated for use as a therapy for drug-induced methemoglobinemia, can be used for the treatment of infections, pathologies or poisoning, and as a dye for diagnostics. It is also commonly used as a dye in vitro - for example as a component in staining of cells, tissues, DNA, parasites and bacteria [Articles:21235292, 14714878, 21316815] Mechanism of Action. Hydrazine + ketone/aldehyde = hydrazones + B6 = hydrazones of pryidoxine Methemoglobinemia - initiate oxygen therapy, give methylene blue if patient is symptomatic; Methylene blue dose 1 mg/kg IV over 5 to 30 minutes repeat dose may be given 1 hour after first if symptoms persist potential mechanism of action (1) Metabolic rescue 3. The main problem in metformin-associated lactic acidosis is blockade of electron transport at Complex I on the mitochondria. G6PD deficiency is a contraindication, as methylene blue may increase the risk of hemolytic anemia Methemoglobinemia is a condition of elevated methemoglobin in the blood. Symptoms may include headache, dizziness, shortness of breath, nausea, poor muscle coordination, and blue-colored skin (cyanosis). Complications may include seizures and heart arrhythmias.. Methemoglobinemia can be due to certain medications, chemicals, or food or it can be inherited from a person's parents
UroAv-81: Methenamine 81 mg, sodium phosphate monobasic 40.8 mg, phenyl salicylate 32.4 mg, methylene blue 10.8 mg, hyoscyamine sulfate 0.12 mg. Uro-L: Methenamine 81 mg, sodium phosphate monobasic 40.8 mg, phenyl salicylate 32.4 mg, methylene blue 10.8 mg, hyoscyamine sulfate 0.12 mg [DSC Two major absorbance peaks of methylene blue were located at 292 and 664 nm, due to benzene ring and heteropolyaromatic linkage (Figure 6). In addition, the aqueous solution of MB molecules exhibited a double-peak feature at 664 and 615 nm, which correspond to monomers and dimers, respectively Methylene blue is indicated in patients with methemoglobin levels >20-25%, or who have lower levels but are symptomatic. Dosing: Adults and children: 1-2 mg/kg (0.1-0.2 ml/kg of 1% solution) intravenously infused over 5 minutes. Methylene blue has a rapid onset of action; maximal effects are normally seen within 30 minutes
Methemoglobinemia. Definition: A hemoglobinopathy characterized by an abnormal elevation of methemoglobin (MetHb) - hemoglobin in which iron (ferrous Fe2+) has been oxidized (ferric Fe3+). An abnormal MetHb level is any level > 1%. Methemoglobinemia Pathophysiology Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) agar is a differential microbiological medium, which slightly inhibits the growth of Gram-positive bacteria and provides a color indicator distinguishing between organisms that ferment lactose (e.g., E. coli) and those that do not (e.g., Salmonella, Shigella). EMB agar was originally devised by Holt-Harris and Teague and further modified by Levine Intravenous (IV) methylene blue is the first-line antidotal agent. Exchange transfusion and hyperbaric oxygen treatment are second-line options for patients with severe methemoglobinemia whose condition does not respond to methylene blue or who cannot be treated with methylene blue (eg, those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PD.
Methylene blue, a common stain used by biologists to help them see bacteria and other forms of life under the microscope, is also a tool of the chemist. Through color, methylene blue indicates the presence or absence of oxygen. Oxygen is necessary for many forms of life on Earth, so any compound that can help detect its presence is bound to be. Topically applied methylene blue dye chromoendoscopy is effective in improving detection of colorectal neoplasia. When combined with a pH- and time-dependent multimatrix structure, a per-oral methylene blue formulation (MB-MMX) can be delivered directly to the colorectal mucosa MECHANISM OF THE REDUCTION OF METHYLENE BLUE BY · PDF 檔案Abstract: The kinetics of the reduction of methylene blue (MB+) by thiourea (TU) in aqueous acidic medium, using spectrophotometric method, has been studied under pseudo-first order conditions of T=25.0±1.0 o C,I=1.0. 204. The methylene blue reduction test and the keeping 204 Methylene blue has been around forever, used for urinary tract infections, malaria, and all sorts of things, up to treating protozoal infections in fish tanks. (For that matter, it's turned up over the years as a surreptitious additive to blueberry pies and the like, turning the unsuspecting consumer's urine greenish/blue, generally to. Mechanism of Action of Sodium Nitroprusside: After parenteral injection, sodium nitroprusside enters red blood cells, where it receives an electron from the iron (Fe2+) of oxyhemoglobin. This nonenzymatic electron transfer results in an unstable nitroprusside radical and methemoglobin (Hgb Fe3+)
Various compounds, most often metal salts, have been found to enhance the staining of these dyes. These enhancing compounds are called mordants. The mechanism of action of the mordants is not clear, but it presumably involves coordination bonding between the metal and the dye, and then further coordination between this complex and the tissue The mechanism of adsorption of methylene blue onto palm kernel shell based activated carbon was studied using thermodynamic approach employing batch adsorption technique. The negative value of the free energy indicates that the process is feasible and spontaneous. The mean value of the entropy of the system was 138.08±21.21 which showed an increased disorder and randomness at the solid. Mechanism of Pb(II) and methylene blue adsorption onto magnetic carbonate hydroxyapatite/graphene oxideLimei Cui a, Yaoguang Wang b, Lihua Hu b, Liang Gao b, Bin Du * a and Qin Wei b a School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China. E-mail: email@example.com; Fax: +86-531-82767370; Tel: +86-531-82767872 b Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in. Actions. Methylene blue (methylene blue injection) is Phenothiazin-5-ium, 3,7-bis (dimethylamino)-, chloride, trihydrate. It will produce two opposite actions on hemoglobin. Low concentrations will convert methemoglobin to hemoglobin. High. The adsorption behavior and the underlying mechanism of methylene blue (MB) sorption on biochars prepared from different feedstocks at 500°C were evaluated. The biochar feedstocks included Magnolia grandiflora Linn. leaves biochar (MBC), pomelo (Citrus grandis) peel biochar (PBC) and badam shell biochar (BBC). The results of characterizing and analyzing the samples showed that different.
bleaching, methylene blue, linoleate 13S-lipoxygenase, lipid peroxidation, enzyme activity Abstract: A lipid peroxidation reaction and methylene blue bleaching reaction are thought to proceed in the presence of methylene blue with linoleic acid as the substrate from the time lipoxygenase is added until methylene blue bleaching concludes Novel insights into the adsorption mechanism of methylene blue onto organo-bentonite: Adsorption isotherms modeling and molecular dynamic simulations. Journal of Molecular Liquids 272:697-707, 2018. Suryadi Ismadji. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper Cialis Tadalafil is a medication to help men with dysfunction to achieve an erection. Purchase Tadalafil online now. Order cheap pills with discount. The most reliable online pharmacy What Is Methylene Blue? Methylene Blue (methylene blue) injection is a form of hemoglobin, a substance in blood, used to treat methemoglobinemia.Methylene Blue oral is used to treat methemoglobinemia and urinary tract infections. Methylene Blue is also used as a dye or staining agent to make certain body fluids and tissues easier to view during surgery or on an x-ray or other diagnostic exam
Biosorption of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution using orange peel biosorbent was experimentally investigated. The effects of dye concentration, solution pH, salt concentration and contact time were investigated in a batch model. The results showed that adsorption equilibrium was reached within one hour at two initial MB concentrations (200 and 1000 mg 1(-1)). The uptake of MB was. Methylene Blue Administration During and After Life-Threatening Intoxication by Hydrogen Sulfide: Efficacy Studies in Adult Sheep and Mechanisms of Action. Toxicol Sci . 2019 04 01; 168(2):443-459 Title: Photoinduced Electron Transfer Reaction of 2-Mercaptothiazoline and Methylene Blue: Mechanism and Kinetics Author: medha Created Date: 12/12/2012 6:28:03 A Methylene blue is the drug of choice to treat drug induced methemoglobinemia dosed at 1 mg/kg intravenously and repeated if needed. 3. Lymph node and vessels delineation. Isosulfan blue: usual dose is 0.5 mL subcutaneously into 3 interdigital spaces of each extremity per study (maximum 3 mL)
INOMAX® (nitric oxide) gas, for inhalation, also known as inhaled nitric oxide, is an FDA-approved drug that selectively dilates the pulmonary vasculature. INOMAX is rapidly inactivated by hemoglobin. Because it is inhaled, INOMAX minimizes systemic vasodilation. Nitrate, the predominant metabolite of nitric oxide, is rapidly cleared by the. Methylene blue has a dose- and time-dependent effect on plasma light absorbance, with a spectral absorption peak at 668 nm, resulting in falsely low pulse oximetry readings . The INVOS device uses two near-infrared wavelengths (730 and 805 nm) and measures the spectral absorbance of blood in brain tissue. Regional oxygen saturation is. Methylene blue (MB, oxidized form, blue color) has been used in many different areas of clinical medicine, ranging from malaria to orthopedics. Leucomethylene Blue (reduced form of MB, colorless) may be applied for the treatment of COVID-19 according to the scientific evidences Methylene blue will most likely cause your urine or stools to appear blue or green in color. This is a normal side effect of the medication and will not cause any harm. However, this effect may.
The antimalarial drug methylene blue (MB) affects the redox behaviour of parasite flavin‐dependent disulfide reductases such as glutathione reductase (GR) that control oxidative stress in the malaria parasite. The reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor FADH2 initiates reduction to leucomethylene blue (LMB), which is oxidised by oxygen to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MB. Examples: methylene blue, safranin, malachite green,basic fuschin, crystal violet; Neutral stain: In neutral stain, both caation and anion are coloured, such that net charge is neutral. Neutral stain are actually is a salt of acidic and basic stain. Examples: giemsa stain. Mechanism of staining
Methylene Blue Reduction Test. The methylene blue reduction test is based on the fact that the color imparted to milk by the addition of a dye such as methylene blue will disappear more or less quickly. The removal of the oxygen from milk and the formation of reducing substances during bacterial metabolism causes the color to disappear Mechanism of action: Methylphenidate (MPH) non-competitively blocks the reuptake of dopamine and noradrenaline into the terminal by blocking dopamine transporter (DAT) and noradrenaline transporter (NAT), increasing levels of dopamine and noradrenaline in the synaptic cleft. Click on the image to zoom Methylene Blue. Methylene Blue as a nootropic will likely feel different than any other nootropic on this list. Much more potent than Piracetam (up to 1000X), its mechanism of action in your brain is similar to other racetams. Noopept seems to stimulate dopamine, nicotinic and serotonin receptors. It boosts cognition, memory,. Methylene blue: A basic dye. See Nissl. Nissl: A method of staining nucleic acids (e.g. ribosomes, RER, heterochromatin, nucleoli). A dye such as methylene blue, toluidine blue or cresyl violet is used. Orange G (Or. G.): A general cytoplasmic stain similar to eosin in action. Stains cytoplasm yellow or orange Overview. Name: Rember TM Synonyms: Methylene Blue , methylthioninium (MT), TRx-0014, Tau aggregation inhibitor (TAI) Chemical Name: 3,7-Bis(dimethylamino)phenothiazin-5-ium chloride Therapy Type: Small Molecule Target Type: Tau Condition(s): Alzheimer's Disease U.S. FDA Status: Alzheimer's Disease (Discontinued) Company: TauRx Therapeutics Ltd Approved for: Methylene Blue predates FDA
methylene blue. methylene blue and promethazine both increase serotonin levels. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. If drug combination must be administered, monitor for evidence of serotonergic or opioid-related toxicities. metoclopramide intranasal. promethazine, metoclopramide intranasal. Either increases effects of the other by Other (see comment) Despite all its shortcomings, methylene blue remains the standard viability stain most likely due to its availability. Availability: easily available and inexpensive. Trypan Blue - also a blue dye that stains dead cells blue. Unlike methylene blue, this stain's action is based on cell membrane integrity Methylene Blue zinc chloride double salt. CAS Number: 26283-09-. Molecular Weight: 388.00 (anhydrous basis) Beilstein Registry Number: 3839953. Empirical Formula (Hill Notation): C16H18ClN3S · 0.5ZnCl2 · xH2O Ondansetron mechanism of action. Ondansetron is a serotonin-3 (5-hydroxytryptamine-3, 5-HT 3) receptor antagonist, have been shown to have a good antiemetic effect in patients receiving chemotherapy and in situations with vomiting after surgery 1) This article has been viwed 5328 times.
Le bleu de méthylène, ou chlorure de méthylthioninium, est un dérivé de la phénothiazine à la fois médicament et colorant dont l'action repose sur les propriétés rédox.Il a été préparé pour la première fois par Heinrich Caro en 1876 .C'est un solide cristallisé inodore soluble dans l'eau et, dans une moindre mesure, dans l'éthanol. À l'état pur, il se présente sous la. Mannitol mechanism of action. The mechanism of action of mannitol is as an osmotic agent 4). The physiologic effect of mannitol is by means of increased diuresis. Mannitol, when administered intravenously, exerts its osmotic effect as a solute of relatively small molecular size being largely confined to the extracellular space